Tuta absoluta

Biocontrol of the South American tomato pinworm

Common name: South American tomato pinworm
Scientific name: Tuta absoluta
Order: Lepidoptera
Affects: Tomatoes, potatoes, aubergines, tobacco
Main season: Spring and Summer

Prays citri

General information

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a serious tomato pest that also damages aubergines, potatoes and can use other Solanaceae as host plants.

The geographical distribution of Tuta absoluta spreads throughout South America, Argentina (introduced by Chile in 1964, according to García and Espul, 1982), Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Tuta absoluta is not present in Andean regions in altitudes above 1.000 m because the low temperatures are a limiting factor for its survival (Notz, 1992).

Tomates


Morphology and biology

Egg:It is creamy white, sometimes yellow, turning a darker shade when close to hatching. It is cylindrical with an average length of 0.36 mm and width of 0.22 mm.

The eggs are individually laid and rarely, they can be found in groups of 5, preferably on the underside of young or fairly mature leaves (Notz, 1992). The average duration before hatching is 4.5 days at a temperature of 24.6 oC.

Huevos de Tuta absoluta

Tuta absoluta Eggs

Larva: The prothoracic shield has a dark stripe on its backside. The newly hatched larva is creamy yellow to later turn a greenish colour. Its size varies from 0.9 mm at the beginning to 7.5 mm at the end of its growth period.

Once the larva emerges, it starts walking and finds its penetration point. It then breaks the epidermis and penetrates into the leaf, consuming the mesophyll. The larva can abandon the mine at any given moment and build another one on a nearby leaf. They can spread very quickly to other plants by hanging on silk threads and then being transported by the wind. The average growth period lasts 12.01 days, therefore they need to go through 4 stages.

Larva de Tuta absoluta

Tuta absoluta larva

Larva de Tuta absoluta dentro de un tallo de tomate

Tuta absoluta larva inside a tomato stem

Pupa: Newly formed it is green, turning a dark brown colour when the adult is about to emerge. The female pupa is larger than the male pupa, measuring 4.67 mm and 4.27 mm long and 1.37 mm and 1.23 mm wide, respectively. Larvae that are ready to pupate, stop feeding and begin to spin a cocoon.

This can happen in the leaves, inside the mines, on the ground or in the fallen leaves. The average growth period for male pupae is 7.80 days and for female pupae 6.72 days.

Pupas de Tuta absoluta

Tuta absoluta pupae

Adult: Both sexes have ashen forewings with shades that vary from blackish to grey. The hindwings are a bright black colour with dark cilia. The head, thorax and palps are ash grey with dark shades. The length of the forewings is from 4.5 to 4.7 mm.

They are nocturnal, remaining hidden amongst the leaves during the day. When they are annoyed, they begin an erratic and short flight. Copulation starts immediately after the adult emergence.

Fertility is high with an average of 241 eggs per female and a fertility rate of almost 100%. The vast majority of eggs are laid during the first 10 days at the beginning of oviposition. Life expectancy for males is 27 days and for females is 24 days.

Adulto de Tuta absoluta

Tuta absoluta adult


Damages

The larvae attack the fruits and the leaves by entering inside them and feeding on the mesophyll. This produces the typical damage of a leaf miner and consequently, they wither. When the attacks are severe, the damaged leaves look burnt, which could be confused with disease.

The damage produced by Tuta absoluta to tomatoes, aubergines and potatoes causes a devastating effect on the economy.

Daños causados por Tuta absoluta en plantas de tomate

Damage to tomato plants caused by Tuta absoluta

Daños causados por Tuta absoluta en tomates maduros

Damage to ripe tomatoes caused Tuta absoluta


Detection and monitoring

For the detection and monitoring of Tuta absoluta, the traps ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR are recommended because of their high sensitivity for capturing insects

The trap ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS are activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR on its base. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, solvent-free, in which the insects are trapped. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects.

Traps should be placed on the ground 2 or 3 weeks before planting, using 1 to 3 traps per hectare. The traps can also be set on a support for this purpose, but at a low height.

The traps will be operative until pheromone depletion or saturation of the sheet or adhesive surface. The ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sheet or adhesive surface.

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR R

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR R
(Code: TA303)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA PLEGABLE SIN LÁMINAS

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA PLEGABLE SIN LÁMINAS
(Code: TA273)

ECONEX LÁMINA PARA TRIANGULAR ENV. 1 UD.

ECONEX LÁMINA PARA TRIANGULAR ENV. 1 UD.
(Code: TA248)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA DESECHABLE

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA DESECHABLE
(Code: TA242)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA con capturas de Tuta absoluta

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA with Tuta absoluta captures


Mass trapping

The males of Tuta absoluta are captured in order to reduce mating, meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. This greatly reduces the population of the pest.

For mass trapping, the following wet trap is recommended ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO) because of its effectiveness, large capacity and low maintenance.

To carry out mass trapping, the number of traps per surface area should be increased, depending on location and homogeneity of the plots. A trap controls a surface area between 250 and 500 m2. This means a density of 20 to 40 traps per hectare.

ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO) is made up of 2 parts: a tray of 5 cm high x 34 cm diameter with a 3.5 litre capacity and a cage to place the pheromone diffuser. In this wet trap, you have to pour water into the tray and we recommend adding a film of oil to the water to increase the captures. The pheromone diffuser is introduced into the cage which is placed in the centre of the trap

ECONEX TRAMPA DE AGUA (ECO)

ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO)
(Code: TA246)

ECONEX TRAMPA DE AGUA ECO - ESQUEMA DE MONTAJE


Period of use

To obtain good control of the Tuta absoluta it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping. 2 to 3 weeks before planting, 1 or 2 traps per hectare should be placed to detect the pest and observe its population levels.

With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures, in this case mass trapping, can later be defined.

The tolerance threshold of Tuta absoluta is very low and depends on the area. In general, it is approximately 3 captures per trap and per week. When it happens, it is time for mass trapping and traps should be placed throughout the plots.


Necessary material

For mass trapping, it is used the ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO). For the detection and monitoring, we recommend the ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR. In any case, the mentioned traps should be placed with a pheromone diffuser: ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.50 MG 60 DAYS, ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0.80 MG 60 DAYS or ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 1 MG 90 DAYS which are authorised for use in organic farming.

logo inter eco

pheromone diffusers ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 0,50 MG 60 DÍAS

pheromone diffuser ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 0,50 MG 60 DAYS y envase de presentación del producto.
(Code: VA220)

pheromone diffusers ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 0,80 MG 60 DÍAS

pheromone diffuser ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 0,80 MG 60 DAYS y envase de presentación del producto.
(Code: VA275)

>pheromone diffusers ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 1 MG 90 DÍAS

pheromone diffuser ECONEX TUTA ABSOUTA 1 MG 90 DAYS y envase de presentación del producto
(Code: VA328)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA sin láminas

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA sin láminas
(Code: TA118)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA PLEGABLE SIN LÁMINAS

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA PLEGABLE SIN LÁMINAS
(Code: TA273)

ECONEX LÁMINA PARA TRIANGULAR ENV. 1 UD.

ECONEX LÁMINA PARA TRIANGULAR ENV. 1 UD.
(Code: TA248)

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA DESECHABLE

ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA DESECHABLE
(Code: TA242)

ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO)

ECONEX WATER TRAP (ECO)
(Code: TA246)

ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA: pheromone diffuser

Active ingredients of the Tuta absoluta pheromone: E3, Z8, Z11-tetradecatrienyl acetate: (E3, Z8, Z11-14:Ac): E3, Z8-tetradecadienyl acetate (95:5).

Duration of the diffuser: Once the diffuser has been placed inside the trap, the diffuser lasts 60 or 90 days (depending on the chosen product) in normal field conditions.

Product storage: The ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA pheromone diffusers must be stored in their original packaging without opening it and in the refrigerator at 4 ºC or in the freezer at -18 ºC, in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively.


Factors that influence the number of traps needed

The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc….

One important factor is the size of the crop. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have the same pest. In cases like this, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 40 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping.


Advice

  • Once the commercial harvesting period has finished, during which time the crops are stored in good phytosanitary conditions, the rest of the plantation must be cleared as quickly as possible. This includes any fruit that may have been left on the ground.
  • Place all of the traps throughout the plots again and leave them there for a minimum of 3 weeks after having cleared the remaining crops.
  • Where possible, apply soil solarisation or biosolarisation treatments straight after having cleared the remaining crops. This ensures that any remaining larvae or chrysalis will be eliminated.
  • When planting new crops, ensure the plots are very well cleaned, at least 3 weeks before replanting. Close the greenhouses with netting (6 x 9 threads/cm2) and double doors.
  • Place the traps two weeks before planting and if captures are detected inside the plot, carry out special monitoring of the new plants. When the amount of captures exceeds 3 – 4 adults per trap and per week, mass trapping should be carried out.
  • If the level of damage is non-existent or very low in crops, then the damaged leaves can be manually disposed of.
  • • In the event that new and a large amount of larvae appear in the crops and the amount of adults captured exceeds 30 – 40 per trap and per week, a treatment should be applied using specific products.

Diffuser packagin


ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0,50 MG 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0,24 x 0,32 x 0,22 m (ancho x largo x alto).
Box weight: 1,5 kg.

Packs of 20 units

Packs of 20 units.

Box of 400 units

Box of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)

ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 0,80 MG 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0,24 x 0,32 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1,5 kg.

Packs of 20 units

Packs of 20 units.

Packs of 400 units

Packs of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)

ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA 1 MG 90 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 100 units)
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1,6 kg.

envase de 20 unidades

Packs of 20 units.

Caja con 2000 unidades

Packs of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)


Trap packagin


ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR R

Corrugated cardboard box of 120 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 11,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 232 kg

Packs of 120 units

Box of 120 units.


ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

Corrugated cardboard box of 150 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 10,60 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 222 kg

Caja con 150 unidades

Box of 150 units.

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR

Corrugated cardboard box of 500 units
Box size: 0,29 x 0,42 x 0,21 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 10,75 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,00 x 1,10 x 1,25 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 545 kg

Caja con 500 unidades

Box of 500 units.


ECONEX TRIANGULAR BLANCA DESECHABLE

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units
Box size: 0,29 x 0,42 x 0,21 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 13,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,00 x 1,10 x 1,25 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 665 kg

Caja con 250 unidades

Box of 250 units.

ECONEX WATER TRAP ECO

Corrugated cardboard box of 20 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 6,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 132 kg

Caja con 20 unidades

Box of 20 units.



Recommended information:


MANUAL TUTA ABSOLUTA

Manual en formato PDF que puede descargarse pulsando en la imagen.

MANUAL Tuta absoluta (MINADORA DEL TOMATE)


TRÍPTICO ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA

Tríptico en formato PDF que puede descargarse pulsando en la imagen.

TRÍPTICO TRÍPTICO ECONEX TUTA ABSOLUTA


RECURSOS WEB ECONEX

Sección de la web corporativa de ECONEX que le permite acceder a información en línea de las soluciones ECONEX para el biocontrol de otras plagas agrícolas y forestales especialmente relevantes.

Para acceder a los RECURSOS WEB ECONEX pulse en la imagen.

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